Islam views other religions and non-believers in a variety of ways, shaped by both theological teachings and cultural practices. Islamic theology emphasizes the oneness of God and the idea that all human beings are equal in the eyes of God, regardless of their religious beliefs.

The Quran recognizes the existence of other religions and their followers, and encourages Muslims to engage in dialogue and peaceful coexistence with people of other faiths. The Quran states that there is no compulsion in religion, and that everyone is free to practice their own religion and follow their own path.

At the same time, Islam teaches that it is the true and complete religion, and that Muslims have a responsibility to share their faith with others. The Quran encourages Muslims to invite people of other faiths to Islam through peaceful dialogue and by setting a good example through their behavior and actions.

Islamic teachings also emphasize the importance of respecting the rights and dignity of all human beings, regardless of their religious beliefs. The Quran teaches that all human beings are created equal and that everyone should be treated with justice and compassion.

However, in practice, the treatment of non-believers and followers of other religions has varied widely among Islamic societies and communities. In some places, non-Muslims have been subject to discrimination and persecution, while in other places they have coexisted peacefully with Muslims for centuries.

Islam also has a complex relationship with secularism and modernity, and the treatment of non-believers and religious minorities can be influenced by political, economic, and cultural factors. In some Islamic societies, religious minorities may face restrictions on their rights and freedoms, while in others they may enjoy full legal protection and representation.

Overall, Islam’s views on other religions and non-believers are shaped by a complex set of theological, cultural, and political factors, and can vary widely depending on the specific context and circumstances. While Islamic teachings emphasize the importance of peaceful coexistence and respect for others, the treatment of non-believers and religious minorities can be influenced by a range of social, economic, and political factors.